7.17. ( Performance ) - IP Masquerading seems slow

There might be a few reasons for this:

  • You might be unrealistic about how much available bandwidth is on your modem line. Lets do the math for a typical 56k modem connection:

    1. 56k modems = 56,000 bits per second.

    2. You really DON'T have a 56k modem but a 52k modem per US FCC limitations.

    3. You'll almost NEVER get 52k, the best connection I used to get was  48k

    4. 48,000 bits per second is 4,800 BYTES per second (8 bits to a byte + 2 bits for the START and STOP RS-232 serial bits)

    5. With an MTU of 1500, you will get (3.2) packets in one second. Since this will involve fragmentation, you need to round DOWN to (3) packets per second.

    6. Again with MTU of 1500, thats 3.2 x 40 bytes of TCP/IP overhead (8%)

    7. So the BEST throughput you could hope for is 4.68KB/s w/o compression. Compression, be it v.42bis hardware compression, MNP5, or MS/Stac compression can yeild impressive numbers on highly compressable stuff like TEXT files, but acutally slow things down when transfering pre-compressed files like ZIPs, MP3s, etc.

Ethernet attached setups (DSL, Cablemodem, LANs, etc)

  • Make sure you don't have both your INTERNAL and EXTERNAL networks running on the same network card with the "IP Alias" feature. If you ARE doing this, it can be made to work but it will be excessively slow due to high levels of collisions, IRQ usage, etc. It is highly recommended that you install another network card for the internal and external networks to have their own interface.

  • Make sure you have the right Ethernet settings for both SPEED and DUPLEX.

  • Some 10Mb/s Ethernet cards and most 100Mb/s cards support FULL Duplex connections. Direct connections from an Ethernet card to, say, a DSL modem (without any hubs in between) *CAN* be set to FULL DUPLEX but only if the DSL modem supports it. You should also be sure that you have Ethernet cables with all eight wires used and that they are in good condition.

    Internal networks that use HUBs -cannot- use Full Duplex. You need either a 10 or 100Mb.s Ethernet SWITCH to be able to do this.

    Both auto 10/100Mb/s SPEED negotiation and Full/Half DUPLEX negotiation on Ethernet cards can wreck havoc on networks. I recommend to hard code both the NIC speed and duplex into the NIC(s) if possible. This is directly possible via Linux NIC kernel modules but isn't directly possible in monolithic kernels. You will need to either use MII utililies from Section 8.1 or hardcode the kernel source.

Optimize your MTU and set the TCP Sliding window to at least 8192

  • Though this is COMPLETELY out of the scope of this document, this helps QUITE A BIT with ANY network link you have, be it an internal or external PPP, Ethernet, TokenRing, etc. link. For more details, this topic is briefly touched in an above section in Section 7.15. For even more details, check out the Network Optimization section of TrinityOS - Section 16.

Serial based modem users with PPP

  • If you have an external modem, make sure you have a good serial cable. Also, many PCs have cheesy ribbon cables connecting the serial port from the motherboard or I/O card to the serial port connection. If you have one of these, make sure it is in good condition. Personally, I have ferrite coils (those grey-black metal like rings) around ALL of my ribbon cables.

  • Make sure your MTU is set to 1500 as described in the FAQ section of this HOWTO above

  • Make sure that your serial port is a 16550A or better UART. Run "dmesg | more" to verify

  • Setup IRQ-Tune for your serial ports.

    On most PC hardware, the use of Craig Estey's IRQTUNE tool and significantly increase serial port performance including SLIP and PPP connections.

  • Make sure that your serial port for your PPP connection is running at 115200 (or faster if both your modem and serial port can handle it.. a.k.a ISDN terminal adapters)

    • 2.0.x kernels: The 2.0.x kernels are kind of an odd ball because you can't directly tell the kernel to clock the serial ports at 115200. So, in one of your startup scripts like the /etc/rc.d/rc.local or /etc/rc.d/rc.serial file, execute the following commands for a modem on COM2:

    • setserial /dev/ttyS1 spd_vhi

    • In your PPPd script, edit the actual pppd execution line to include the speed "38400" per the pppd man page.

    • 2.2.x kernels: Unlike the 2.0.x kernels, both the 2.1.x and 2.2.x kernels don't have this "spd_vhi" issue.

      So, in your PPPd script, edit the actual pppd execution line to include the speed "115200" per the pppd man page.

All interface types:

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